Heterocyclic amines, specifically phenylmethylimidazopyridine, are mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds found in grlled chicken. Although chicken is consumed in large quantities, there is little information on methods of limiting exposure to HCA’s. The objective of this study was to determine whether specific marinade ingredients would inhibit PhIP formation.
Portions of boneless, skinless chicken breast were marinated in lemon juice, soy sauce, salt water, brown sugar, or olive oil and then grilled om a residential barbeque grill. Percent weight loss during cooking was recorded and PhIP levels were measured using high pressure liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The data indicates that some marinades can reduce the PhIP levels. The brown sugar is a probable inhibitor, the salt water a certain inhibitor; the soy sauce results are inconclusive; the olive oil creates a probable increase in PhIP; and the lemon juice is a certain inhibitor.
Furthermore, this study showed that PhIP levels increase with cookling time. Although this study is the first to investigate specific marinade ingredients and their impact on PhIP formation, further studies are needed to better evaluate the specific chemicals important and determining the exact pathways of HCA formation. Another important project exapansion would be to test the combinations of proven PhIP inhibitor ingredients to produce a carcinogen decreasing marinade. By developing this marinade, it would have enormous application to the population. Although we cannot eliminate all carcinogens from our diet, by decreasing amounts we can improve the quality of life.
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